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Which statement is correct regarding the operation of DHCP?

A.    A DHCP client uses a ping to detect address conflicts.
B.    A DHCP server uses a gratuitous ARP to detect DHCP clients.
C.    A DHCP client uses a gratuitous ARP to detect a DHCP server.
D.    If an address conflict is detected, the address is removed from the pool and an administrator must
resolve the conflict.
E.    If an address conflict is detected, the address is removed from the pool for an amount of time configurable
by the administrator.
F.    If an address conflict is detected, the address is removed from the pool and will not be reused until the
server is rebooted.

Answer: D
An address conflict occurs when two hosts use the same IP address. During address assignment, DHCP checks for conflicts using ping and gratuitous ARP. If a conflict is detected, the address is removed from the pool. The address will not be assigned until the administrator resolves the conflict.

Refer to the exhibit. Statements A, B, C, and D of ACL 10 have been entered in the shown order and applied to interface E0 inbound, to prevent all hosts (except those whose addresses are the first and last IP of subnet from accessing the network. But as is, the ACL does not restrict anyone from the network. How can the ACL statements be re-arranged so that the system works as intended?
A.    ACDB
B.    BADC
C.    DBAC
D.    CDBA

Answer: D
Routers go line by line through an access list until a match is found and then will not look any further, even if a more specific of better match is found later on in the access list. So, it it best to begin with the most specific entries first, in this cast the two hosts in line C and D. Then, include the subnet (B) and then finally the rest of the traffic (A).

The output of the show frame-relay pvc command shows "PVC STATUS = INACTIVE". What does this mean?

A.    The PVC is configured correctly and is operating normally, but no data packets have been detected
for more than five minutes.
B.    The PVC is configured correctly, is operating normally, and is no longer actively seeking the address
of the remote router.
C.    The PVC is configured correctly, is operating normally, and is waiting for interesting traffic to trigger
a call to the remote router.
D.    The PVC is configured correctly on the local switch, but there is a problem on the remote end of the PVC.
E.    The PVC is not configured on the local switch.

Answer: D
The PVC STATUS displays the status of the PVC. The DCE device creates and sends the report to the DTE devices. There are 4 statuses:
+ ACTIVE: the PVC is operational and can transmit data + INACTIVE: the connection from the local router to the switch is working, but the connection to the remote router is not available
+ DELETED: the PVC is not present and no LMI information is being received from the Frame Relay switch
+ STATIC: the Local Management Interface (LMI) mechanism on the interface is disabled (by using the "no keepalive" command). This status is rarely seen so it is ignored in some books.

Which command is used to enable CHAP authentication, with PAP as the fallback method, on a serial interface?

A.    Router(config-if)# ppp authentication chap fallback ppp
B.    Router(config-if)# ppp authentication chap pap
C.    Router(config-if)# authentication ppp chap fallback ppp
D.    Router(config-if)# authentication ppp chap pap

Answer: B
This command tells the router to first use CHAP and then go to PAP if CHAP isn’t available.

Which protocol is an open standard protocol framework that is commonly used in VPNs, to provide secure end-to-end communications?

A.    RSA
B.    L2TP
C.    IPsec
D.    PPTP

Answer: C
IPSec is a framework of open standards that provides data confidentiality, data integrity, and data authentication between participating peers at the IP layer. IPSec can be used to protect one or more data flows between IPSec peers.

At which layer of the OSI model does PPP perform?

A.    Layer 2
B.    Layer 3
C.    Layer 4
D.    Layer 5

Answer: A
The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) provides a standard method for transporting multi-protocol datagrams over point-to-point links. PPP was originally emerged as an encapsulation protocol for transporting IP traffic between two peers. It is a data link layer protocol (layer 2 in the OSI model )

The command frame-relay map ip 102 broadcast was entered on the router. Which of the following statements is true concerning this command?

A.    This command should be executed from the global configuration mode.
B.    The IP address is the local router port used to forward data.
C.    102 is the remote DLCI that will receive the information.
D.    This command is required for all Frame Relay configurations.
E.    The broadcast option allows packets, such as RIP updates, to be forwarded across the PVC.

Answer: E
Broadcast is added to the configurations of the frame relay, so the PVC supports broadcast, allowing the routing protocol updates that use the broadcast update mechanism to be forwarded across itself.

Which two options are valid WAN connectivity methods? (Choose two.)

A.    PPP
B.    WAP
C.    DSL
D.    L2TPv3
E.    Ethernet

Answer: AC
The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) provides a standard method for transporting multi-protocol datagrams over point-to-point links. PPP was originally emerged as an encapsulation protocol for transporting IP traffic between two peers. It is a data link layer protocol used for WAN connections.
DSL is also considered a WAN connection, as it can be used to connect networks, typically when used with VPN technology.

Which Layer 2 protocol encapsulation type supports synchronous and asynchronous circuits and has built-in security mechanisms?

A.    HDLC
B.    PPP
C.    X.25
D.    Frame Relay

Answer: B
PPP: Provides router-to-router and host-to-network connections over synchronous and asynchronous circuits. PPP was designed to work with several network layer protocols, including IP. PPP also has built-in security mechanisms, such as Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP).

Which encapsulation type is a Frame Relay encapsulation type that is supported by Cisco routers?

A.    IETF
B.    ANSI Annex D
C.    Q9333-A Annex A
D.    HDLC

Answer: A
Cisco supports two Frame Relay encapsulation types: the Cisco encapsulation and the IETF Frame Relay encapsulation, which is in conformance with RFC 1490 and RFC 2427. The former is often used to connect two Cisco routers while the latter is used to connect a Cisco router to a non-Cisco router. You can test with your Cisco router when typing the command Router(config-if)# encapsulation frame-relay ? on a WAN link. Below is the output of this command (notice Cisco is the default encapsulation so it is not listed here, just press Enter to use it).
Note: Three LMI options are supported by Cisco routers are ansi, Cisco, and Q933a. They represent the ANSI Annex D, Cisco, and ITU Q933-A (Annex A) LMI types, respectively. HDLC is a WAN protocol same as Frame-Relay and PPP so it is not a Frame Relay encapsulation type.

RouterA is unable to reach RouterB. Both routers are running IOS version 12.0. After reviewing the command output and graphic, what is the most likely cause of the problem?

A.    incorrect bandwidth configuration
B.    incorrect LMI configuration
C.    incorrect map statement
D.    incorrect IP address

Answer: C
First we have to say this is an unclear question and it is wrong. The “frame-relay map ip” statement is correct thus none of the four answers above is correct. But we guess there is a typo in the output. Maybe the “ip address command should be “ip address

Refer to the exhibit. What is the meaning of the term dynamic as displayed in the output of the show frame-relay map command shown?

A.    The Serial0/0 interface is passing traffic.
B.    The DLCI 100 was dynamically allocated by the router.
C.    The Serial0/0 interface acquired the IP address of from a DHCP server.
D.    The DLCI 100 will be dynamically changed as required to adapt to changes in the Frame Relay cloud.
E.    The mapping between DLCI 100 and the end station IP address was learned through
Inverse ARP.

Answer: E
Inverse Address Resolution Protocol (Inverse ARP) was developed to provide a mechanism for dynamic DLCI to Layer 3 address maps. Inverse ARP works much the same way Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) works on a LAN. However, with ARP, the device knows the Layer 3 IP address and needs to know the remote data link MAC address. With Inverse ARP, the router knows the Layer 2 address which is the DLCI, but needs to know the remote Layer 3 IP address. When using dynamic address mapping, Inverse ARP requests a next-hop protocol address for each active PVC. Once the requesting router receives an Inverse ARP response, it updates its DLCI-to-Layer 3 address mapping table. Dynamic address mapping is enabled by default for all protocols enabled on a physical interface. If the Frame Relay environment supports LMI autosensing and Inverse ARP, dynamic address mapping takes place automatically. Therefore, no static address mapping is required.

A network administrator needs to configure a serial link between the main office and a remote location. The router at the remote office is a non-Cisco router. How should the network administrator configure the serial interface of the main office router to make the connection?

A.    Main(config)# interface serial 0/0
Main(config-if)# ip address
Main(config-if)# no shut
B.    Main(config)# interface serial 0/0
Main(config-if)# ip address
Main(config-if)# encapsulation ppp
Main(config-if)# no shut
C.    Main(config)# interface serial 0/0
Main(config-if)# ip address
Main(config-if)# encapsulation frame-relay
Main(config-if)# authentication chap
Main(config-if)# no shut
D.    Main(config)# interface serial 0/0
Main(config-if)#ip address
Main(config-if)#encapsulation ietf
Main(config-if)# no shut

Answer: B
With serial point to point links there are two options for the encapsulation. The default, HDLC, is Cisco proprietary and works only with other Cisco routers. The other option is PPP which is standards based and supported by all vendors.

What are three reasons that an organization with multiple branch offices and roaming users might implement a Cisco VPN solution instead of point-to-point WAN links? (Choose three.)

A.    reduced cost
B.    better throughput
C.    broadband incompatibility
D.    increased security
E.    scalability
F.    reduced latency

Answer: ADE
IPsec offer a number of advantages over point to point WAN links, particularly when multiple locations are involved. These include reduced cost, increased security since all traffic is encrypted, and increased scalability as s single WAN link can be used to connect to all locations in a VPN, where as a point to point link would need to be provisioned to each location.

Which two statistics appear in show frame-relay map output? (Choose two.)

A.    the number of BECN packets that are received by the router
B.    the value of the local DLCI
C.    the number of FECN packets that are received by the router
D.    the status of the PVC that is configured on the router
E.    the IP address of the local router

Answer: BD
Sample "show frame-relay map" output:
R1#sh frame mapSerial0/0 (up): ip dlci 401(0x191,0x6410), dynamic,broadcast,, status defined, activeSerial0/0 (up): ip dlci 403(0x193,0x6430), dynamic,broadcast,, status defined, activeSerial0/0 (up): ip dlci 401(0x191,0x6410), static,CISCO, status defined, active

Users have been complaining that their Frame Relay connection to the corporate site is very slow. The network administrator suspects that the link is overloaded.
Based on the partial output of the Router# show frame relay pvc command shown in the graphic, which output value indicates to the local router that traffic sent to the corporate site is experiencing congestion?

A.    DLCI = 100
B.    last time PVC status changed 00:25:40
C.    in BECN packets 192
D.    in FECN packets 147
E.    in DE packets 0

Answer: C
If device A is sending data to device B across a Frame Relay infrastructure and one of the intermediate Frame Relay switches encounters congestion, congestion being full buffers, over- subscribed port, overloaded resources, etc, it will set the BECN bit on packets being returned to the sending device and the FECN bit on the packets being sent to the receiving device.

Which command allows you to verify the encapsulation type (CISCO or IETF) for a Frame Relay link?

A.    show frame-relay lmi
B.    show frame-relay map
C.    show frame-relay pvc
D.    show interfaces serial

Answer: B
When connecting Cisco devices with non-Cisco devices, you must use IETF4 encapsulation on both devices. Check the encapsulation type on the Cisco device with the show frame-relay map exec command.

It has become necessary to configure an existing serial interface to accept a second Frame Relay virtual circuit. Which of the following procedures are required to accomplish this task? (Choose three.)

A.    Remove the IP address from the physical interface.
B.    Encapsulate the physical interface with multipoint PPP.
C.    Create the virtual interfaces with the interface command.
D.    Configure each subinterface with its own IP address.
E.    Disable split horizon to prevent routing loops between the subinterface networks.
F.    Configure static Frame Relay map entries for each subinterface network.

Answer: ACD
For multiple PVC’s on a single interface, you must use subinterfaces, with each subinterface configured for each PVC. Each subinterface will then have its own IP address, and no IP address will be assigned to the main interface.

What occurs on a Frame Relay network when the CIR is exceeded?

A.    All TCP traffic is marked discard eligible.
B.    All UDP traffic is marked discard eligible and a BECN is sent.
C.    All TCP traffic is marked discard eligible and a BECN is sent.
D.    All traffic exceeding the CIR is marked discard eligible.

Answer: D
Committed information rate (CIR): The minimum guaranteed data transfer rate agreed to by the Frame Relay switch. Frames that are sent in excess of the CIR are marked as discard eligible (DE) which means they can be dropped if the congestion occurs within the Frame Relay network. Note: In the Frame Relay frame format, there is a bit called Discard eligible (DE) bit that is used to identify frames that are first to be dropped when the CIR is exceeded.

Which two statements about using the CHAP authentication mechanism in a PPP link are true? (Choose two.)

A.    CHAP uses a two-way handshake.
B.    CHAP uses a three-way handshake.
C.    CHAP authentication periodically occurs after link establishment.
D.    CHAP authentication passwords are sent in plaintext.
E.    CHAP authentication is performed only upon link establishment.
F.    CHAP has no protection from playback attacks.

Answer: BC
CHAP is an authentication scheme used by Point to Point Protocol (PPP) servers to validate the identity of remote clients. CHAP periodically verifies the identity of the client by using a three-way handshake. This happens at the time of establishing the initial link (LCP), and may happen again at any time afterwards. The verification is based on a shared secret (such as the client user’s password).

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